CO2 concentrations are at the highest level in over 800,000 years. This emissions have led global temperatures to an increase more than 1ºC since pre-industrial times. Climate change is reflected in grapes in several ways: sunburn, drought, less chilling hours, pests and diseases and changes in crop physiology, like harvest too early or difficulties in fruit ripening. There is an urgent need for the reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions through the creation of a low-carbon emission economy - either by avoiding/reducing fossil-based carbon emissions or capturing theses emissions for storage/use as feedstock source. The REDWine project will demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of reducing by, at least, 31% of the CO2 emissions produced in the winery industry value chain by utilizing biogenic fermentation CO2 for microalgae biomass production.
To demonstrate the technical, economic and evironmental feasibility of integrating off-gas from red wine fermentation (rich in CO2) and winery liquid effluent in the production of Chlorella biomass and extracts. This solution will reduce, at least 31% of the CO2 emissions of the wine value chain, while diversifying revenue for wine producers who will valorize Chlorella biomass into food, cosmetics and agricultural products.
REDWine will define a new business model based on individual business cases and market studies to incentivise the transition of the wine production industry to an innovative, circular and sustainable model that will increase and diversify revenues for its stakeholders. Such business model will be complementad by a commercialization roadmap aiming to invite other wineries following the implementation road of utilizing their own CO2.
This objective focuses on the central assets that will be required for the project's successful implementation and commercial exploitation of the expected results, while addressing the management of its IPR activities.
To demonstrate the technical feasibility of cultivating Chlorella in medium prepared with the winery liquid effluent at laboratory scale, by determining its biological and physicochemical properties and formulating the medium either by: 1) supplying missing microelements/nutrients to the effluent, or 2) combining different types of effluents (red wine and white wine) generated in the winery. Optimal medium formulation will induce optimal biomass growth, without affecting biomass composition/quality.
To demonstrate the efficient capture and storage of red wine fermentation off-gas produced in one fermentation batch (20.000L fermenter) per year. 1.2 million L (corresponding to 2.2 ton) of off-gas is expected to be produced per fermentation batch, which lasts for 6 days. Therefore, efficient collection and storage are required to guarantee the yearly supply of off-gas to microalgae cultures. Off-gas composition will be determined, with expected values being > 90% (v/v) CO2 and < 10% (v/v) a mixture of alcohols (mainly ethanol), aldehydes, terpenes and ketones.
To install a production unit with the capacity to produce 1 ton dry weight of Chlorella biomass per year by using two distinct cultivation systems: 1) semi-closed raceway (RW) of 150 m2 of photosynthetic area, and 2) closed, unilayer tubular PBR (UHT-PBR) of 115 m2. To efficiently supply the red wine fermentation off-gas into the cultures by reducing air bubble size (microbubbling). To utilize the optimized liquid effluent-containing medium for Chlorella cultivation in the Living Lab. To harvest biomass through the selection of the most appropriate (techno-economic) harvesting technology.
The efficient capture, storage and supply of red wine fermentation off-gas to Chlorella cultivation systems will culminate in the uptake of CO2 and some volatiles as inorganic and organic carbon sources, respectively, for Chlorella metabolism. By achieving the biomass productivities in the cultivation systems mentioned in SO5, 1 ton of dry biomass/year will be produced, which requires the uptake of 2 ton of off-gas/year. This value represents 90% of the total off-gas produced in one fermentation batch of a 20.000L fermenter.
A 20.000L fermenter is filled at 80% and 16.000L of wine are produced. Approximately 5 L of water effluent is generated per L of wine produced. Therefore, 80.000L of effluent will be generated per fermentation batch. The liquid effluent will be used as nutritive medium for Chlorella cultivation in RW and UHT-PBR, which require approximately 9.000 m3 of cultivation medium/year. Cultivation of Chlorella will reduce the C, N, P and other elements content in the medium to levels that allow: 1) water recirculation into the process (cultivation, harvesting or processing); or 2) water discharge into water bodies. Percentage of liquid effluent in cultivation medium can be as low as 1% (v/v) for complete bioremediation of the liquid effluent produced by a 20.000L fermentation batch.
To validate the employment of different downstream processes for multi-valorisation of Chlorella biomass into high-value ingredients by recovering protein, lipid and carbohydrate fractions, without damaging the properties of these components. To recover VOCs present in Chlorella cultivation medium (from microalgae metabolism) through an efficient pervaporation process.
REDWine will create 4 new types of consumer products (food, cosmetics and agriculture) based on high value compounds obtained from Chlorella biomass within the project. REDWine will characterize and validate the use of Chlorella ingredients in these 4 new consumer products.
The first step for REDWine impact assessment is the definition and modelling of the processes involved, from CO2 capture until achieving final consumer products. Modelling the system will allow the assessment of the environmental and social impact through an LCA. Then, the LCA will provide data to the techno-economic assessment. Navigating logistical barriers will also contribute to process modelling and, therefore, to the environmental and techno-economic analysis.
Maximizing the number of stakeholders engaging into the project will boost its potential and dissemination, promoting a more effective market uptake of both the REDWine concept and products. The Living Lab visits and workshops, will be key to showcase REDwine innovations and gather feedback. Engaging external wine producers will allow the replication of the concept in other geographical locations (especially wine producing regions such as Europe (Italy, Spain, France), USA, South America (Argentina, Chile), and others).
Ensure proper communication and dissemination of project results through communication and dissemination plans to raise awareness and develop a sustainable communication platform for the future.